Here you get trusted and reliable statistics, tables, betting tips and latest results that relates to football betting. Online betting websites are a great source which provide players with enriched betting odds, higher stakes and array of bets for novices as well experienced punters. It’s quite visible that Spain and Brazil are hot favorites for this soccer season, with presence of other teams,you need to carefully analyze their individualized performance and then place bets. Many times you might be very close to win,but end up losing. Make sure you have maintained a betting limit , instead of wagering with hefty bucks, play with a small amount many times. Managing your betting amount is a crucial part to consider while you are placing soccer bets. Website offering betting tips have plethora of tips along with a statistical analysis that guides you and let you focus on the certainty of the bets at stake. Losing with a small amount will not be a disaster,you can easily make other bets with more excitement and fun.
All of us are aware that betting is a risky affair,this unpredicted event can take you to deep profits and at the same time you can lose also. Both of the teams have unbeatable good players,but then you should make bets after doing plenty of research work,don’t just stick to one,play smartly. It is essential to make a strong by soccer betting,you do not easily lose your calm and play with utmost patience.
Make your thoughts clear had have a strong base to make the most of this soccer betting season.
The money making strategy in soccer betting is all about taking advantage from the information available,the more you are acquainted with latest trends the more you have chances of making as much money as you can. Generally people get excited and make bets for larger amount all the time,this can lead them to debts because bankroll emptied quite early.
In this country, gaming companies bet people on whether the central bank’s interest will increase or not. According to business advisory firm MAG Consulenti Associati, the electronic gaming makes up half of Italy’s total gaming revenues in first half of 2011.
Australia: Biggest Gambling Country in the World
Australia is the craziest country when it comes to gaming and gambling. Furthermore, the slot machines named pokies are the most favorite game in Australia with an estimated number of 75-80 percent of problem gamblers. Although the government has imposed an entry fee of S$100 ($80.50) for citizens entering the casino, the country’s gaming revenue is expected to hit $6.4 billion in 2011 and outpace Las Vegas.
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,288
Era of Online Gambling
Top Online Gambling Mistakes
Las Vegas is well-known as the gambling industry of the world; however, American people are not the biggest gamblers on Earth. Otherwise, Australia is the only country that allows online bets on sports but prevents gamblers from using the Internet to place bets during live games.
Singapore offered the very first casino some years ago which then became the world’s third largest-gaming center after Macau and Las Vegas.
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $568
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,174
The potash-rich province of Saskatchewan is home to the biggest gamblers in Canada. Reportedly, over 75 percent of adult Canadians took part in the games last year in which the most popular games are lotteries and Scratch and Win cards.
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $517
Gambling’s Famous Icons
Interestingly enough, the country’s national lottery company, Veikkaus, belongs to the government and is operated by the ministry of education. Most profits go to education, arts and culture.
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $553
The most favorite gambling activity in Italy is electronic gaming machine. H2 Gambling Capital has released the list of biggest gambling countries due to average gaming losses.
These odds are going to determine the likelihood of a certain dog coming in a certain place through the race.. How can you determine what the prize will be once the bet has been made? The prize that will be given to the successful bettor depends on two factors; the amount that has been bet and the odds that are placed on the bet that has been made.
Using these two factors, greyhound racing betting sites will determine the prize that is going to be awarded. Online betting sites with “racebooks” set the greyhound racing betting odds.
The odds are available through the race and are created by the sports books. It is important to realize that the odds given for the race are accurate and the odds makers have years of experience in determining the results of the race and therefore the odds should be considered accordingly.
Using the odds and learning about the dogs and the specifics of the sport can be a great way to get into greyhound racing betting online.
Many online racebooks allow the bettor to take part in betting practices without actually being in the local area, as they can showcase the matches online with the use of the streaming video that can be presented to clients, allowing the clients to watch the races that are being bet on, with ease.
Choosing between the many greyhound racing websites that are available is simple, when the reputation of the website is compared with the races and the bets that can be made.
As one of the most popular types of animal racing in the world, greyhound racing betting has many different types of bets that can be made with many different types of outcomes. Many times, these prizes are outlined with the bet that is being made, allowing even beginners to determine the potential prize that is available with the bet that has been made.
The important odds to consider are the first, second and third for most bets that are being made. There are often multiple dogs that are involved in the race and the bets are made on the position that the dogs are going to arrive over the finish line
Naturally you may need to become completely sure with the service; a very good service or on line service with credible on the internet evaluations will serve as an excellent thrust to your plans. Winners are a group of men and women who do their homework the challenging way. In the event you can obtain on the web testimonials for that website then that must inform you how well other users have located the services to become. Based on your analysis you could decide to join or appear for other sites, this could in the end be the distinction involving accomplishment and failure.
Are you currently are budding punter trying to earn money from on the net sports betting? On the internet sport betting is really serious business and there runs a higher risk of generating a loss so a better and informed position will improve your possibilities of producing a profit. Your selection must not be based on your liking for a particular sport or sportsperson. They’ll see past outcomes, statistics, the kind book and a lot of other issues prior to drawing a conclusion. Thus it will not matter which soccer team wins or which player scores the purpose or which horse crosses the post 1st the bookmaker will in turn a superb profit from all those that placed incorrect bets and pay only individuals who got it ideal.
A very good qualified tipsters web site having a established track record of accomplishment and verified tipster profiles would go a long way in helping you develop extended lasting success. The winners are that group of individuals who don’t place bets merely on guess operate or try their luck. Sports betting and betting tipster sites are there in abundance so you genuinely must careful about applying them. Get additional details about canli bahis oranlari http://canlibahis.info
You would never ever have heard a bookie losing cash, it can be normally the punter that wins or loses as well as the bookie stands to earn in each situations. A very good service is 1 that offers you a free of charge trail offer, that way you can test their services and when you are sure their solutions are what you’re seeking for then you definitely can go ahead and spend for it.
. You might need to incur losses at instances but having a experienced service you will be in a position to maximize income and lessen the risk of creating a loss.
In recent times it is not so tough getting reputable betting strategies. The authorities will usually possess the finest chance at winning.
Persons looking to make use of sports betting tipster service should really do a thorough check up on the website’s service. Losing a handful of dollars in registration or sign up charge will be as huge a letdown as losing a huge selection of dollars parked inside your account would when a service cheats you.
In the real globe scenario there are actually a huge selection of losers as against a handful of winners. That is certainly since the bookmarker doesn’t leave the door open from exactly where he will be within a loss making scenario. It truly is also not probable that employing the most beneficial bet tipsters service you can win every single time. In the same time if the bookmarker is offering a cost then that bookmarker already inside a excellent position to create a healthier profit on the supply price tag
Compared to many other popular casino card games, Caribbean stud poker has a pretty short history. Vincent and St. First, each island has its own laws and rules when it comes to gambling, so be sure to find out the details about the island you visit. Many of these glamorous gambling establishments are located in the historic city of San Juan, and most require that their patrons dress formally. Second, the hours that some casinos are open may vary depending on the season, so find out ahead of time before making your plans.
Gambling in The Bahamas
The Caribbean region has a lot of hot gaming spots and casinos. All players are allowed to see one of the dealer’s cards, which is dealt face up. Since it began in Aruba, the popularity of Caribbean stud poker has grown tremendously in the region and is even played in Las Vegas.
The gorgeous island of Puerto Rico is home to about a dozen old-world-style casinos.
Before heading to the slot machines, there are a few things casino patrons should remember. This poker variation started in Aruba in the 1980s, reportedly by some cruise ship directors who were out to make a buck. The biggest difference between Caribbean stud poker and traditional poker is that instead of playing against other players, you go against the dealer. Although gambling is illegal for residents of The Bahamas, tourists can try their luck at any of the region’s spectacular casinos. By Puerto Rican law, all casinos have to be located on the property of hotels or resorts. The combination of sugar-sand beaches and tropical island ambiance with all the glamor and excitement of Las Vegas makes for an ideal vacation destination for many travelers.
Caribbean Islands Featuring Casinos
The Crystal Palace Casino is another sizzling casino found in The Bahamas. Maarten, St. But unlike American and European casinos, the gambling atmosphere in the Caribbean is more relaxed, and most of the island casinos are not open 24 hours a day. The Atlantis’ expansive 30,000-square-foot area, which includes 78 table games and approximately 1,000 slot machines, has helped earned the Atlantis Casino its reputation as an immaculate gambling palace.
by: Danielle Mitchell
<< Back to “Travel And Leisure” Index
Casinos in Puerto Rico
Caribbean Stud Poker
Gamers are often drawn to The Bahamas which is popular for great casinos and gambling action. Finally, the newest casino in the Bahamas is Our Lucaya Resort, which offers several gambling options.
Other islands in the Caribbean that feature dazzling casinos and exciting gambling are the Dominican Republic, Aruba, Curacao, St. The four largest casinos in The Bahamas are the Atlantis Casino on Paradise Island, the Crystal Palace Casino on New Providence Island, and The Crowne Plaza Golf Resort & Royal Oasis Casino and Our Lucaya, both on Grand Bahama Island.
While visiting the Caribbean travelers will find a number of glitzy casinos and hotels and resorts with on-site gambling. The Crowne Plaza Golf Resort & Royal Oasis Casino is a luxurious and exciting casino located within a plush hotel that has great choices of various games, slots, and other gambling opportunities. During your stay in Puerto Rico, you can enjoy fine dining, exciting nightlife, and spectacular gambling fun all under one roof.
Some popular casinos on the island include the Hyatt Regency Cerromar, Hilton Ponce and Casino, Westin Rio Mar Resort Casino, Ritz Carlton San Juan, which is the first Ritz Carlton casino, and many, many more. The Atlantis also features several restaurants, outdoor terraces, and gaming lessons for the novice gambler. Caribbean stud poker is a combination of blackjack and poker – the rules of play are similar between the two games. So not only can you wage bets during your sunny island vacation, but you will also find many other ways to let your hair down at Caribbean gambling palaces. Located on the premises of the Wyndham Nassau Resort on Cable Beach, the Crystal Palace Casino has about 700 slot machines and 38 tables for games such as blackjack, craps, roulette, and baccarat. Casinos in Puerto Rico are some of the most exciting in the Caribbean region because of their extravagant historical décor, hot gaming, as well as their award-winning restaurants, live entertainment, array of bars and lounges, and much more.
. There are so many choices when it comes to gambling in the Caribbean that you’re sure to find the right island with the perfect casino to fit your style and your ideal vacation. Croix in the Virgin Islands, and Antigua. Along with state-of-the-art slot machines, table games, and other types of gaming fun, Caribbean casinos also offer other nightlife options including dance clubs, discos, and bars. And finally, no one under the age of 18 is allowed in Caribbean casinos, so schedule other activities for the youngsters before you hit the casinos.
This article was posted on February 13, 2006
The world-famous Atlantis Casino is the largest casino located in the Caribbean
Successful coaches have played in important role in deciding the fate of many teams. The bettor may use these football betting tips before making a conclusion about how to consider a bet on a football game.
Soccer (or football match) has a huge following across the world. This will have big influence on the outcome of the result.. The football bettor must consider this information before; he bets his money over a particular team. On the contrary if the venue turns out to be home venue for one of the teams, then they had distinct advantage over the other team, because of their support from the local audience.
The next thing the bookie or bettor has to study the venue for the football match. There is common perception that if the place is a neutral place for both teams, then it could be a competition between teams and be difficult to predict. For the persons involved in betting over football game, the first thing that must be taken into consideration the fitness levels of key players playing in the game. By Appropriate methods of mental conditioning, the coach brings a positive attitude for players who work under him.
So, what are the things that should be taken into consideration while betting? Betting on football match requires a lot of basic research on the form of the team members or players, their playing status and fitness level. If some key players are injured, then they will not be getting any chance in playing eleven. For the reason that of huge fan base, betting on Football game has become very common and has gain popularity over the passage of time. A trainer provides not only technical knowledge and skills of strategy, but also acts as the motivator for the group.
Besides these factors, the coaches of the football teams and their previous records in the managing various teams also play an important role, and bettors should pay due attention to them. It is very much popular in United Kingdom because of the massive popularity of the English Premier League in England. If the player returns from injury then there are chances that it may not play as per his desired potential or in the same form. Bookies or bettors can get information about the fitness of the players by searching online through some fitness related Web sites or news web sites.
Also, the punter or bettor can also use the Internet for more material about the condition of the players and the support that comes from the local audience. So, they are the key factors which influence the outcome of the game. Also, Football match betting tips, are readily visible on web space, one can also see Web pages that has a number of experts able to predict the outcome of a particular match
I’ve started practicing using my emotions to determine how the game will end up, before the game has even kicked off.
Your emotions are always a perfect reflection of what’s coming.
Simple.. All of your thoughts are created from past experiences and so your logical mind is working within your limited belief system.
By asking yourself the question “how will I feel about this?”, you will always get a perfectly aligned response from your emotional guidance system. If they feel bad, bad things are coming.
If you start removing your attention from the logical mind and stop using your mind to make the decisions, then by relying on your emotions, you will very quickly begin to see that your emotions are always a perfect match to what you’re attracting.
Is it possible to successfully place a bet and win it using the Law of Attraction? I’ve proved it possible.
It was an uncomfortable game and didn’t bring me any joy. Before the game begins I will ask myself…
If I get a distinct feeling of “positiveness” then the game will be a success and will win.
If I feel pretty bad about the game then it will either be a draw or a loss.
If I feel nothing and am completely neutral, then I don’t make a decision.
When you remove the logical mind and really listen to what you’re feeling, you will always have access to the most accurate answer, since your feelings are an indication of what you’re moving towards. I’m not big on betting, but it is entirely possible to bet using your feelings as a judgment call.
As I was practicing this in a recent match I was watching, I noticed a horrible feeling within me. I knew before the game started that it wouldn’t. It felt horrible and was definitely unwanted.
Within each and every one of us is something called an Emotional Guidance System. Second half started and the opposing team took the lead and made it 2-1.
If you feel good, you’re attracting good things into your life.
If you feel bad, or neutral, then you’re attracting unwanted things into your life.
“How do I feel about this game?”
Because I watch my team play, I am emotionally attached to the game. The end result was a draw, 2-2.
In the opening 10 minutes, we scored a goal and were 1-0 up. So, I knew straight away that my team was going to lose or draw.
By half-time it was 1-1. This helps me greatly in my decision making. If they feel good, good things are coming. You may know it with a different name (gut instincts for example), but simply put the emotions that you feel, are always a perfect match to what you are currently attracting.
I’m an avid football (soccer) fan and I always enjoy watching my team play on television. Your logical mind can only make decisions upon what it already knows. My logical mind started to kick in… “they can’t predict the outcome!”.
How does all of this fit in with betting on events?
Your emotions are your best method of making accurate decisions. “your emotions are a load of rubbish!” ..
For example, when Betway set the line at 2,500:1 at the beginning of the season for Leicester to become the Premier League champions, no one really thought it would be a good bet. However, they managed to pull it off, and now they’re stuck with what amounts to their single-largest loss inside of a single market in the history of the brand, which is huge considering they have been around for over 11 years.
Read full article. 15 May 2016
Record Largest Ever Single-Market Loss for Betway SetIn the sports betting world, the long-shot bet very rarely pays off
Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture. He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough.
The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants. This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service. Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press. It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”
The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”. They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American. They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”. More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.
In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease. In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa. He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea. He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa. In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections. By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver.
He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active. His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr. Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.
Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well. Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.
The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away. In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved. Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected. This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not). Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.
He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well. In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen. It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame). The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort. It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).
AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans. IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive.
Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.
This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV.
Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research. It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted. Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS.
Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there. She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill. Her symptoms confounded her colleagues. She died in December 1977. Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive. During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.
Mr. Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership. I truly appreciate it.
First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners. After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed. This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest. When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer. Maybe you’ll get it.”
He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples. In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive
Update note:Dr. Louis, Missouri. His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George. Rayford was described as slender. His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness.
Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation. In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues. Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected. Further confirmation testing in 1989 proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. 1952-1953).
This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject. One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case. Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America.
Gay men realized the danger. Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent. Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others. They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men. Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).
Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities. His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.
His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling. Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs. Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate.
The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”. Certainly, they were paid less. There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.
The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old). He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened. His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically. The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised. He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ). His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”
Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.
Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966. Other strains have been isolated as well. As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much).
By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.
Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick. He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”. But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious. He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him. His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice. His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.
Gateway to the West
Less Than Zero
Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS). In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died.
The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men. These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials. As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male. World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too.
But, it doesn’t end there.
Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.
In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants. They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality. “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.
The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS. That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.
Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did. This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed.
From a front-line perspective
Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim. As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.
Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses. He was blond, voluble, and open. Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls. He took on whatever he felt like. As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts. [The quintessential version of “The Clone Look” would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen’s lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.]
And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history.
In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.
Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people.
Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.
For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust.
He started out as a hairdresser. Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual. He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job. He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada. This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters. In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.
AIDS now had a face.
There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry. At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.
Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless. At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).
The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within. Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54’s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself.
Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. Louis.
Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.
The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in. Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.
This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.
He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time). [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]
The airline industry developed glamour. The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless. These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime. Therefore, they must be promiscuous. The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring. Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses. The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day). Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.
Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind. As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID). This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system. It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims. It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.
The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture. Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island. Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”.
This makes little sense.
Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem. And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.
The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning. Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”) for “the beginning”. It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).
A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though. Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests. This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”. It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly. Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.
Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953. His life was on a collision course with history. In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active. [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown. He may have been bisexual.]
Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America.
Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”.
AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. It was so unusual at the time . .
The End of Days was seemingly at hand.
Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment. [Rubell later died of AIDS.]
Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio. He came to the US in 1927. He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan. He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue. Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case. Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS? “You bet . . . The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen. He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”. He also had shortness of breath. His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems). This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.
Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”. Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors. An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh). [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.]
“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”
Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary. What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously. It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966.
The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version. One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871. HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922. Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.
In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.
Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31. His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.
Dugas remained unrepentant. He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually. His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex. Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.” His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves. They know what’s going on out there. They’ve heard about this disease.” The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer. I’m going to die and so are you.”
One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America. As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate. As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount. Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men.
A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances. He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect. In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim. Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa). Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.
Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54. This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world. Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there. Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity. No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54. Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies.
Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep).
Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.
By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor. A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay).
Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards. Stewardesses, however, were very desirable. They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man. In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.
Good investigative work requires dogged determination. Running an enigma to ground can take years.
As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida. It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history.
On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.
The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene. The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.
As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active. Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic. His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body.
Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams. It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse). One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background). He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him. To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.
There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?). Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ [“zero”] instead.
Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.
In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived. Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities. Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men. They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco. [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).
In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died. In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive. .